Having high quality garden soil is one of the best things you can do to encourage good plant growth. The problem is, not every gardener is blessed with quality soil to begin with. Often, gardners have to amend garden beds to improve the soil quality. A "good" garden soil will contain sufficient nutrients for plants and beneficial microorganisms, it will have adequate water holding capacity with good drainage, and will be resilient to unexpected, unfavorable conditions.
Fortunately, there are many ways to naturally improve the soil in your garden and in turn promote healthy plant growth. These 5 things are all great ways to boost soil quality!
Adding finished compost to the soil is one of the best ways to improve its quality. Compost will also dramatically improve soil structure through the addition of organic matter. Compost will help add beneficial microorganism and earthworms to the soil, it will also enrich it with plant available nutrients. The added organic material will improve water holding capacity, while simultaneously increasing drainage aeration.
If compost isn't available, you can add manure to your soils to see similar benefits. Manure is typically used as a natural fertilizer since it will add a quick shot of nutrients to the soil, especially nitrogen. At the same time it increases the overall organic material in the soil which will improve the water holding capacity, drainage, and soil structure. If you are using "fresh" manure, apply it in the fall and till well, giving it time to break down over the winter before the spring planting season.
3. Kitchen scraps
Before you toss your egg shells, banana peels, or coffee grounds take a minute and think about adding them to your garden soil. Unlike many other items, they can get worked into the soil before they are decomposed or composted. Crushed egg shells will help to improve soil drainage, add essential calcium, and will deter slugs and snails. Banana peels are an excellent source of organic matter and will release calcium, magnesium, sulfur, phosphates, potassium, and sodium for the plants to use. Coffee grounds will help to improve soil drainage, water retention, and soil aeration by adding organic matter. Over time they also release nitrogen into the soil.
Compacted soils are a bad thing to have in the garden. They often occur when wet soils are trod upon repeatedly, pushing the soil particles tightly together and diminishing pore space between the particles. This means water does not drain well out of the soil, and air does not move freely through the pore spaces. It is also harder for roots to move freely through compacted soils. To minimize soil compaction, make sure to work the ground well before planting to create a loose, light structure. This can be done with a tiller, or by hand using a good garden rake.
Another great way to improve soil drainage and aeration is by putting worms to work in your soil. Their tunnels will create channels for air and water within the soil, and the resulting worm castings add an excellent source of fertilizer. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, earthworms are the predominant group of soil invertebrates in most soils, and a hearty population indicates a healthy soil system. If your soil does not have a good worm population it is possible to buy them and add them to the soil. Just make sure they have some compost and mulch to keep them happily fed.